FAQ: Acronims, standards and protocols

What LTE signals mean?

The term LTE (Long Term Evolution) indicates the standard used by mobile telephone systems of fourth generation (4G) for the transmission of broadband data. The telephone transmissions that are based on LTE standard have acquired, among others, a portion of the UHF band from channel E61 to channel E69, commonly called the 800 MHz band. Following this, the frequencies available for television broadcasts have been resized to the channel E60. The separation band between the two telecommunication systems is so small that it is not excluded may cause interference problems.
LTE filters

What is a LNB?

A LNB (acronym which stands for Low Noise Block Downconverter) is a device composed of a feed horn, a polarizer and a converter.
Placed in the receiving satellite dish focus, it is employed to convert the satellite signals transmitted in KU band (typically from 10700 MHz to 12750 MHz) in a lower frequency band (950-2150 MHz), the so-called 1 IF (First Intermediate Frequency) , thus allowing the distribution of satellite signals to the decoders using a coaxial cable.
To learn about the different types of existing LNBs see FAQ B.5.

What is DiSEqC protocol?

DiSEqC protocol (acronym for Digital Satellite Equipment Control), developed by the broadcasts provider Eutelsat, which defines its standardization, is a communication protocol between SAT decoder and devices such as LNBs, switches or motors. The DiSEqC commands are propagated through the coaxial cable along which SAT signals are transmitted and allow the decoders to handle more LNB, thereby allowing the reception of the same number of satellites, to control the movements of a motorized dish and so on. There are several versions of this protocol, including the DiSEqC 2.0 version that allows you to control up to four LNB with bidirectional communication.

What does Legacy mean?

The term Legacy is linked to all those devices (LNBs or multiswitches) with one or more outputs to each of them it can be connected only one SAT decoder at a time. To select the programs distributed by those devices, the decoder employs 13÷18 V  0÷22 KHz switching commands.

What does SCR acronym mean?

The Unicable (SCR stands for Satellite Channel Router) is a system of distribution of satellite signals that allows to manage independently up to 4 users connected to the same cable, with no bandwidth or number of receivable channels limitations.
It allows to use PVRs (to watch a channel and to record another channel at the same time, e.g. MySky) and to watch two different programs in two different rooms of the same home simultaneously (e.g. Sky Multivision).
The frequencies of the 4 User Bands adopted by SCR technology are: 1210, 1420, 1680, 2040 MHz.

What does dCSS acronym mean?

dCSS (acronym for Digital Channel Stacking Switch) technology allows to independently provide a potentially unlimited number of transponder to a maximum of 16 devices connected to the same cable. This technology employs the 4 SCR frequencies plus other 12 dCSS frequencies (see FAQ K.7). The first 4 SCR frequencies can also be used by STBs (Set-top boxes) and PVRs (Personal Video Recorders) compatible with SCR technology.
The remaining 12 frequencies, instead, can be used by multituner STBs (e.g. Sky Q), which offer more powerful performance than existing decoders. This kind of set-top boxes, for example, allows to see/record simultaneously up to 9 different programs on TV and on portable devices (tablets, smartphones, laptops).

Which ones are the dCSS frequencies?

dCSS technology employs 16 User Bands (see FAQ K.8), of which the first 4 are the same as already used by SCR technology, in order to ensure backwards compatibility.
As for the Italian scenario (in fact there are other realities, such as UK, which employ different frequencies), in band 1 IF frequencies assigned to the 16 User Bands are: 1210, 1420, 1680, 2040, 985, 1050, 1115, 1275, 1340, 1485, 1550, 1615, 1745, 1810, 1875, 1940 MHz.

What does User Band mean?

User Band indicates a band 1 IF channel, dedicated to a specific user. This concept, first adopted by the SCR technology and then by the dCSS one, is employed in those system solutions with unicable satellite signals distribution.

What do NVR and DVR mean?

Both the NVR and the DVR are devices for recording videos coming from surveillance cameras.
Connected to the HDMI input of a digital modulator, they allow to replay on home TV videos, in HD resolution, captured by surveillance camera.
The substantial difference between the two types of devices consists in the storage mode of the recorded images:
NVR (acronym which stands for Network Video Recording) allows to save videos in network;
DVR (acronym which stands for Digital Video Recording), instead, allows to save videos to a hard disk, internal or external to the DVR itself.

FAQ K.10
What does HEVC mean?

HEVC (High Efficiency Video Coding), also known as H.265, is a video compression standard which allows to reduce up to 50% of the bandwidth occupied by a TV program. Successor to the widely used AVC (Advanced Video Coding), also known as H.264 or MPEG-4 Part 10, HEVC improves video quality, doubles the ratio of data compression compared to H.264 and supports 8K and higher resolutions ultra-definition up to 8192×4320.
This result, coupled with the efficiency provided by the DVB-T2 standard, ensures that within a mux a HD (high definition) channel occupies the same space as a SD (standard definition) channel.

FAQ K.11
What does FAT32 mean?

FAT (acronym which stands for File Allocation Table) is the primary file system of different DOS and Microsoft Windows operating systems, up to Windows ME (Millennium Edition) version.
It is an outdated file system: with FAT32 the single file size can not be greater than 4 GB and offers lower performance compared to those of the most recent file systems.
Windows NT and later versions, as well as many other modern operating systems (Unix, Linux, Mac, etc.), introduced NTFS (see FAQ K.12) file system and maintained compatibility with the FAT file system mostly for formatting pen drive, memory cards and other mobile devices, thanks to its high level of compatibility with Smart TVs, multimedia set-top boxes, media players, etc.

FAQ K.12
What does NTFS mean?

NTFS (acronym which stands for New Technology File System) is a file system, owned by Microsoft, implemented as standard on versions of Windows from Windows NT on.
Later than FAT32 file system, it permits long filenames and does not waste of disk space, but the lack of availability of documentation has limited its diffusion, so that, for example, does not find use in digital cameras or in the basic formatting of USB pen drives.
It can be used, as an alternative to the FAT32 file system, for formatting a hard disk or an external memory. If the disk has already been formatted, it is still possible to switch from one type to another without having to proceed with a new formatting, performing a conversion of the file system.

FAQ K.13
What does Free To Air mean?

Free To Air (whose acronym is FTA) is an expression used in UK to indicate all the free radio and TV broadcasts and, consequently, all the devices suitable for their reception.

FAQ K.14
What does Common Interface mean?

Common Interface is a hardware and software interface, standardized by the DVB Project (an industrial consortium which deals with maintaining a set of standards designed for the development and dissemination of digital television) and designed for decoding of pay digital television and radio signals (pay-TV, pay-per-view, etc.).
Transmodulators with Common Interface, as well as some set-top boxes and TVs, have one or two slots in which enter the Common Interface CAM modules (PCMCIA/PC Card format) compatible with the most popular coding systems between the pay-tvs as Nagravision, Viaccess, etc.

FAQ K.15
What is a CAM?

A CAM (Common Access Module) is a module of conditional access necessary for decoding encrypted pay programs through televisions and receivers equipped with Common Interface slot (often identified by the acronym "PCMCIA"). It is used in conjunction with the relevant smart cards, compatible with the most common coding systems between the pay-TVs as Nagravision, Viaccess, etc. The CAM module is also equipped inside with a smart card reader for subscription cards with microchip.

FAQ K.16
What does DVB-T mean?

DVB-T (acronym which stands for Digital Video Broadcasting - Terrestrial) is a standard for the broadcast transmission of digital terrestrial television, based on OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) multicarrier modulation. Digital modulation ensures high quality performances and allows to modulate 5/6 services in standard definition or up to 3 sevices in high definition into a single RF channel.

FAQ K.17
What does DVB-T2 mean?

DVB-T2 (second generation DVB-T) is a standard for the broadcast transmission of digital terrestrial television which includes part of DVB-T technology (see FAQ K.16), first of all OFDM multicarrier modulation and QAM constellations, to which combines innovative elements, such as the subdivision of the data and the channel coding typical of DVB-S2 standard (see FAQ K.22).
Thanks to a more efficient use of the frequency spectrum, DVB-T2 allows to increase the number of SD or HD services within a single MUX.

FAQ K.18
What does DVB-T2 LITE mean?

DVB-T2 LITE is a DVB-T2 profile (see FAQ K.17) specifically designed for mobile broadcastings. Thanks to a careful selection of a sub-set of modes, it efficiently delivers TV and radio to mobile devices at the same time as providing services to existing fixed receivers. This profile allows simpler and more efficient receiver implementations for very low capacity applications such as mobile broadcasting. It allows, furthermore, to save battery power.

FAQ K.19
Switching from DVB-T to DVB-T2: what does it involve?

Thanks to an extensive flexibility of the parameters, which allow the system to adapt to the transmission channel characteristics and to the type of service, the DVB-T2 (see FAQ K.17) standard increases the transmission capacity of a mux up to 50% compared to DVB -T (see FAQ K.16). This facilitates the transmission of HD signals or increases the number of SD programs present within a mux. By contrast, while TVs and decoders with DVB-T2 standard are able to receive also signals with DVB-T modulation (since the DVB-T2 standard guarantees backward compatibility), the opposite is not true.
It will be necessary to replace TVs and decoders that only support the DVB-T standard.

FAQ K.20
With the advent of DVB-T2, what will happen to devices with DVB-T standard?

Since DVB-T2 standard (see FAQ K.17) ensures the backward compatibility with DVB-T standard (see FAQ K.16), the new receivers with DVB-T2 standard will be able to also decode DVB-T signals, while the opposite will not be possible: the devices with DVB-T standard currently in use are not able to receive DVB-T2 signals.
This implies that while all DVB-T signals sources (such as digital modulators, transmodulators, etc.) can continue to be employed in TV systems, the receiving devices (TV and digital terrestrial decoders) with DVB-T standard have to be necessarily replaced with models with new DVB-T2 standard or integrated with DVB-T2 decoders.

FAQ K.21
What does DVB-S mean?

The DVB-S (Digital Video Broadcasting - Satellite) is the DVB European consortium standard used in first instance for satellite television transmission of digital signals. The system transmits in broadcast mode a digital audio/video stream in MPEG-2 format, using a QPSK modulation system.

FAQ K.22
What does DVB-S2 mean?

The system for satellite broadcasting DVB-S2 (Digital Video Broadcasting - Satellite - Second Generation) is the first second-generation system defined by the DVB European consortium, used today by many broadcasters for satellite transmission of digital high-definition (HD) signals. Evolution of the DVB-S standard, it is designed not only for broadcasting services for TV and HDTV, but also for interactive applications for home and business customers. The system provides for the transmission of one or more digital audio/video streams, using a QPSK or MAPSK modulation system.

FAQ K.23
What are the differences between the two DVB-S and DVB-S2 standards?

DVB-S2 standard (see FAQ K.22) achieves a significantly better performance than DVB-S standard (see FAQ K.21), thanks to the ability to modify the encoding and modulation parameters for each frame and the possibility of making adaptive the change of these parameters, on the basis of information collected from the return channel of each individual user.

FAQ K.24
What does DVB-C mean?

DVB-C (Digital Video Broadcasting - Cable) is the DVB European consortium standard for the broadcast transmission of digital television over cable. It is deployed in systems ranging from the larger cable television networks (CATV) down to smaller satellite master antenna TV systems.
This system transmits an MPEG-2 or MPEG-4 family digital audio/digital video stream, using a QAM modulation with channel coding.
Due to higher bit-rate in the same frequency band compared with to what can be obtained using the DVB-T standard, the DVB-C is able to offer a greater number of programs within the same transmission channel.

FAQ K.25
What does DVB-C2 mean?

DVB-C2 (Digital Video Broadcasting - Cable - Second Generation) is a DVB European consortium standard for the broadcast transmission of digital television over cable, born in the wake of two other second-generation standards, DVB-S2 (see FAQ K.22) and DVB-T2 (see FAQ K.17). DVB-C2, , which is the result of the evolution of the DVB-C standard (see FAQ K.24) and the GSE protocol (Generic Stream Encapsulation), extends constellations up to 4k-QAM and introduces maximum allocation flexibility in available channel band.

FAQ K.26
What are the differences between the two DVB-C and DVB-C2 standards?

By using state of the art channel coding of DVB-S2 standard (see FAQ K.22) and OFDM modulation of DVB-T2 standard (see FAQ K.17) techniques, DVB-C2 offers greater than 30% higher spectrum efficiency compared to DVB-C standard (see FAQ K.24), under the same conditions of channel bandwidth.

FAQ K.27
What is a STB?

A Set-Top Box (or STB) is a television device (typically a decoder) with single tuner, capable of interfacing with televisions, monitors and/or projectors to allow the vision of some television standards, such as the satellite one, not initially provided for by the equipments connected to them.
If used for the decoding of Pay-TVs, the Set-Top Box has one or more slots for PCMCIA (CAM) and/or one or more readers for smart cards.

FAQ K.28
What is a STB PVR?

A STB PVR (Set-Top Box Personal Video Recorder) is a Set-Top Box (see FAQ K.27) equipped with a dual tuner (e.g. MySky HD decoder). The second tuner is used to program the automatic recording of a television program and allows viewing at a later time, at the user's discretion.

FAQ K.29
Law 164: what is it?

The Law 164 of 11 November 2014 regulates the requirements for the infrastructure of buildings with electronic communication systems. This law is aimed at facilitating the installation of high-speed electronic communications networks, in compliance with the "technological neutrality". The multiservice infrastructure, indeed, has to be prepared to accommodate all types of cable and cabling: fiber optics, coaxial cables, LAN cables and other signal cables. The important thing is to ensure the realization of future technological changes and/or additions.
Article 6-ter, paragraph 2 of this law stipulates that, from 1 July 2015, all new buildings and those undergoing major renovation will be equipped with a multi-service passive physical infrastructure inside the building and an access point for services that allows the connection with the internal infrastructure.
The CEI 306-22 Guide provides guidance to achieve according to good engineering practice job.

FAQ K.30
What does CSOE mean?

The CSOE (Centro Servizi Ottico di Edificio, litterally "services optical center of building") is responsible for receiving all the fiber optic signals (both those coming from the attic and those who reach ROE) and redistribute them within each apartment.

FAQ K.31
What does ROE mean?

The ROE (Ripartitore Ottico di Edificio, litterally "optical splitter of building") is the connecting element between the TLC operators network and the condominium internal fiber optic distribution network.

FAQ K.32
What does STOA mean?

The STOA (Scatola di Terminazione Ottica di Appartamento, litterally "optical ending box of apartment") is the connecting element within the apartment between the fiber optic system in the common part and the one laid inside the apartment.

FAQ K.33
What does QDSA mean?

A QDSA ( Quadro di Distribuzione dei Segnali di Appartamento, litterally "signals distribution panel of apartment") is a technical compartment located within the apartment in which the different signal distribution devices are installed.